Cisco Wireless: Cisco Prime Infrastructure 2.0 Summary Notes

Cisco Prime Infrastructure Cisco Prime Infrastructure (CPI) is a converged solution that combines the following wireless functionalities: Cisco Prime Network Control System (NCS) Cisco Prime LAN Management Solution (LMS) CPI is useful in accomplishing the following tasks: deploying end-to-end network infrastructure maintaining end-to-end network infrastructure managing end-to-end network infrastructure Cisco Prime Licences Assurance add-on license - Provides … Continue reading Cisco Wireless: Cisco Prime Infrastructure 2.0 Summary Notes

Cisco Wireless: WebAuth on WLC

Web Authentication WebAuth is an authentication method without encryption. It provides Layer 3 security. WebAuth with Local WLC The client (end user) opens a web browser and enters a URL. Client resolves URL using DNS Client sends HTTP request to IP address of the site The WLC URL sends the user to a login page. If authentication is … Continue reading Cisco Wireless: WebAuth on WLC

Capturing WLAN Packets using WireShark

If you are studying for CCNP Wireless or CWNP Certification, an essential part of the study process is actually getting to lab it all out so as to understand the concepts. I noticed that my Wireshark output lacked the 802.11 management or control packets while trying to capture Open System Authentication process. This blog will explain … Continue reading Capturing WLAN Packets using WireShark

CWNA Summary Notes: Legacy 802.11 Security | MAC Filters

MAC Filtering MAC Filtering referes to the use of MAC addresses to client devices that can authenticate to a WLAN. MAC Filtering is not defined by 802.11 Standard and any implementation of it is Vendor specific. Here is an example from my ASUS home router. Weakness: MAC addresses can easily be spoofed. Where used: Protect … Continue reading CWNA Summary Notes: Legacy 802.11 Security | MAC Filters

CWNA Summary Notes: Legacy 802.11 Security | Static WEP Encryption

Static WEP Encryption This is a layer 2 encryption method using RC4 streaming cipher. Main goals of WEP Encryption were: Confidentiality (Data privacy through encryption) Access Control ( Authorization if static WEP keys match) Data Integrity ( Data Integrity Check-sum is computed before encryption to ensure that the data has not been tampered with) Can … Continue reading CWNA Summary Notes: Legacy 802.11 Security | Static WEP Encryption

CWNA Summary Notes: Legacy 802.11 Security | Legacy Authentication

Legacy Authentication Legacy authentication methods were more of an authentication of capability (verification between two devices that they were valid 802.11 devices) and not so much an authentication of user identity. They are of two types: Open System Authentication It provides authentication without performing any form of user verification Involved a 2 way exchange between … Continue reading CWNA Summary Notes: Legacy 802.11 Security | Legacy Authentication

CWNA Summary Notes: 802.11 Network Security Architecture

Components of a Secure Network Required components when securing a network are: Data Privacy and Integrity Access to Wireless medium is unrestricted hence the use of cipher encryption technologies is needed for proper data privacy. A cipher is an algorithm that is used to perform encryption: RC4 algorithm ( Ron's Code / Rivest Cipher) It encrypts … Continue reading CWNA Summary Notes: 802.11 Network Security Architecture

CCIE version 3.0 Wireless Summary Notes 1 : IEEE 802.11 Primary MAC Layer Functions Part 2

Connectivity To connect, the client must go through the following: Scanning for networks Includes passive or active scanning mode (or both). Many vendors use both. Passive scanning: Client tunes to each channel, listens for a period of time, and monitors 802.11 beacon frames (AP transmits beacons by default every 100 milliseconds on a specific RF) Client records the RSS … Continue reading CCIE version 3.0 Wireless Summary Notes 1 : IEEE 802.11 Primary MAC Layer Functions Part 2

CCNP Wireless 642-747 IUWMS Summary Notes 6 : Location Tracking Techniques – Pattern Recognition

This technique is based on sampling and recording radio signal behaviour patterns in specific areas. Commercial solutions usually base the signature on RSSI but it can also use ToA, AoA and TDoA based RF signatures. Deployment of these systems is based on  2 phases: Calibration phase A walk around is done with a mobile device … Continue reading CCNP Wireless 642-747 IUWMS Summary Notes 6 : Location Tracking Techniques – Pattern Recognition

CCNP Wireless 642-747 IUWMS Summary Notes 5 : Location Tracking Techniques – Angulation (AoA / DoA)

Angulation (Angle-Based) Techniques Localization is based on the angle of the received signal. Angle of Arrival (AoA) / Direction of Arrival (DoA) AoA determines the angle of Incidence at which signals arrive at the receiving sensor. This angle is used to estimate the location of the device using the intersection of the two lines of … Continue reading CCNP Wireless 642-747 IUWMS Summary Notes 5 : Location Tracking Techniques – Angulation (AoA / DoA)

CCNP Wireless 642-747 IUWMS Summary Notes 4 : Location Tracking Techniques – Lateration (RSS)

Received Signal Strength (RSS) Localization is based on the received signal strength. The RSS is measured either by the mobile device or by the receiving sensor. The following information is needed to calculate the distance between the sensor and the device: Transmitter output power Cable losses Antenna gain Path loss model(PL) A common PL model … Continue reading CCNP Wireless 642-747 IUWMS Summary Notes 4 : Location Tracking Techniques – Lateration (RSS)

CCNP Wireless 642-747 IUWMS Summary Notes 3 : Location Tracking Techniques – Lateration (ToA and TDoA)

Distance-Based (Lateration) Techniques The tracking position is determined based on distance. The distance can be measured in three different ways: Using Time of Arrival (ToA) Using Time Difference of Arrival (TDoA) Using Received Signal Strength In ToA and TDoA, localization is based on propagation time, whereas for RSS systems, propagation is based on signal strength. … Continue reading CCNP Wireless 642-747 IUWMS Summary Notes 3 : Location Tracking Techniques – Lateration (ToA and TDoA)

CCNP Wireless 642-747 IUWMS Summary Notes 2 : Location Tracking Techniques – Cell of Origin

Tracking systems are classified by the measurement technique that they use. Real Time Location Systems (RTLS) are grouped into the following: Cell of Origin ( Nearest Cell) Lateration ( depending on Distance) Angulation (depending on the angle) Location patterning ( pattern recognition) Cell of Origin The tracking position is based on proximity and is determined … Continue reading CCNP Wireless 642-747 IUWMS Summary Notes 2 : Location Tracking Techniques – Cell of Origin

CCNP Wireless 642-747 IUWMS Summary Notes 1 : Introduction to Location-Based Services

Advantages of Location-based services. Location-based services helps us to: Effectively locate assets and personnel. Improve productivity by locating effectively. Reduce unauthorized removal of assets and, thus, helps reduce losses. Improve customer satisfaction Improve WLAN planning and tuning Coordinate device location with Security policy enforcement Determine rogue device location Monitor health and status of key assets. … Continue reading CCNP Wireless 642-747 IUWMS Summary Notes 1 : Introduction to Location-Based Services

CCNP Wireless CUWSS 642-732 Summary Notes 24 : Installation Report

Post Deployment A detailed hardware requirement list should have: Wireless equipment needed Supporting infrastructure upgrades RF Validation for the installed wireless network Co channel interference and appropriate channel separation Power levels are consistent with site survey If designing for AP failover or designing to RRM RF Coverage (band by band) Roaming audit Airmagnet can be … Continue reading CCNP Wireless CUWSS 642-732 Summary Notes 24 : Installation Report

CCNP Wireless CUWSS 642-732 Summary Notes 23 : Assessing WLAN Readiness

WLAN Readiness WCS can be used to assess Wireless coverage readiness for both Location Services and VoWLAN. This however does not replace an onsite post-deployment site survey. The tools used are: Inspect VoWLAN Readiness Inspect location Readiness Both tools are launched from the map that you are viewing on WCS. Voice over WLAN Readiness WCS … Continue reading CCNP Wireless CUWSS 642-732 Summary Notes 23 : Assessing WLAN Readiness

CCNP Wireless CUWSS 642-732 Summary Notes 22 : Assessing RF Coverage

RF Audit The main objective is to verify RF Coverage. The goal is to validate or audit the current WLAN deployment in order to enhance its security and performance. Unlike pre installation site surveys, post installation surveys focus more on the entire site environment. Verify RF footprint of all installed APs. Use Ekahau Survey or AirMagnet Survey PRO. First … Continue reading CCNP Wireless CUWSS 642-732 Summary Notes 22 : Assessing RF Coverage

CCNP Wireless CUWSS 642-732 Summary Notes 21 : Infrastructure requirements Part 2

802.11n APs with 100% duty cycle: the 2,4 band when oversubscribed with clients communicating at 144 Mbps may consume up to 70 - 75 Mbps on wired side. the 5 GHz band when oversubscribed and using 40 MHz channels with clients communicating at 300 Mbps may consume up to 160 - 170 Mbps on wired side. Both … Continue reading CCNP Wireless CUWSS 642-732 Summary Notes 21 : Infrastructure requirements Part 2

CCNP Wireless CUWSS 642-732 Summary Notes 20 : Choosing Antennas

Antennas Antenna - “an intentional radiator of electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic field - a sine wave that has an electric component and a magnetic field component. Indoor antennas are always vertically polarized but this is not critical. Polarization plays a role in Outdoor links where a polarization mismatch can reduce the received signal by 20 dBm. Polarization … Continue reading CCNP Wireless CUWSS 642-732 Summary Notes 20 : Choosing Antennas

CCNP Wireless CUWSS 642-732 Summary Notes 19 : Infrastructure Requirements Part 1

AP Power  Options for powering the AP AP model-specific Power module (DC Power) Power Injector - combine 48-VDC power with the data signal, sending both to the access point or bridge. The AIR-PWRINJ3 power injector for Cisco Aironet 1130AG, 1140AG, and 1240AG Series Access Points works with the power supply provided with the access point. The Cisco Aironet Power … Continue reading CCNP Wireless CUWSS 642-732 Summary Notes 19 : Infrastructure Requirements Part 1