Capturing WLAN Packets using WireShark

If you are studying for CCNP Wireless or CWNP Certification, an essential part of the study process is actually getting to lab it all out so as to understand the concepts. I noticed that my Wireshark output lacked the 802.11 management or control packets while trying to capture Open System Authentication process. This blog will explain … Continue reading Capturing WLAN Packets using WireShark

CWNP’s CWSP-205 Official Study Guide Book Review | Part 1

When I think of the CWNP Program, I think of actual Wireless knowledge that Vendor oriented programs have failed to deliver. I have always used CWNP books to complement information that was missing during my past CCNP Wireless exams (2 more to go). It was therefore only logical that I would turn to their CWSP book … Continue reading CWNP’s CWSP-205 Official Study Guide Book Review | Part 1

CWNA Summary Notes: Legacy 802.11 Security | MAC Filters

MAC Filtering MAC Filtering referes to the use of MAC addresses to client devices that can authenticate to a WLAN. MAC Filtering is not defined by 802.11 Standard and any implementation of it is Vendor specific. Here is an example from my ASUS home router. Weakness: MAC addresses can easily be spoofed. Where used: Protect … Continue reading CWNA Summary Notes: Legacy 802.11 Security | MAC Filters

CWNA Summary Notes: Legacy 802.11 Security | Static WEP Encryption

Static WEP Encryption This is a layer 2 encryption method using RC4 streaming cipher. Main goals of WEP Encryption were: Confidentiality (Data privacy through encryption) Access Control ( Authorization if static WEP keys match) Data Integrity ( Data Integrity Check-sum is computed before encryption to ensure that the data has not been tampered with) Can … Continue reading CWNA Summary Notes: Legacy 802.11 Security | Static WEP Encryption

CWNA Summary Notes: Legacy 802.11 Security | Legacy Authentication

Legacy Authentication Legacy authentication methods were more of an authentication of capability (verification between two devices that they were valid 802.11 devices) and not so much an authentication of user identity. They are of two types: Open System Authentication It provides authentication without performing any form of user verification Involved a 2 way exchange between … Continue reading CWNA Summary Notes: Legacy 802.11 Security | Legacy Authentication

CWNA Summary Notes: 802.11 Network Security Architecture

Components of a Secure Network Required components when securing a network are: Data Privacy and Integrity Access to Wireless medium is unrestricted hence the use of cipher encryption technologies is needed for proper data privacy. A cipher is an algorithm that is used to perform encryption: RC4 algorithm ( Ron's Code / Rivest Cipher) It encrypts … Continue reading CWNA Summary Notes: 802.11 Network Security Architecture

CCIE version 3.0 Wireless Summary Notes 1 : IEEE 802.11 Primary MAC Layer Functions Part 2

Connectivity To connect, the client must go through the following: Scanning for networks Includes passive or active scanning mode (or both). Many vendors use both. Passive scanning: Client tunes to each channel, listens for a period of time, and monitors 802.11 beacon frames (AP transmits beacons by default every 100 milliseconds on a specific RF) Client records the RSS … Continue reading CCIE version 3.0 Wireless Summary Notes 1 : IEEE 802.11 Primary MAC Layer Functions Part 2

CCNP Wireless 642-747 IUWMS Summary Notes 6 : Location Tracking Techniques – Pattern Recognition

This technique is based on sampling and recording radio signal behaviour patterns in specific areas. Commercial solutions usually base the signature on RSSI but it can also use ToA, AoA and TDoA based RF signatures. Deployment of these systems is based on  2 phases: Calibration phase A walk around is done with a mobile device … Continue reading CCNP Wireless 642-747 IUWMS Summary Notes 6 : Location Tracking Techniques – Pattern Recognition

CCNP Wireless 642-747 IUWMS Summary Notes 5 : Location Tracking Techniques – Angulation (AoA / DoA)

Angulation (Angle-Based) Techniques Localization is based on the angle of the received signal. Angle of Arrival (AoA) / Direction of Arrival (DoA) AoA determines the angle of Incidence at which signals arrive at the receiving sensor. This angle is used to estimate the location of the device using the intersection of the two lines of … Continue reading CCNP Wireless 642-747 IUWMS Summary Notes 5 : Location Tracking Techniques – Angulation (AoA / DoA)

CCNP Wireless 642-747 IUWMS Summary Notes 4 : Location Tracking Techniques – Lateration (RSS)

Received Signal Strength (RSS) Localization is based on the received signal strength. The RSS is measured either by the mobile device or by the receiving sensor. The following information is needed to calculate the distance between the sensor and the device: Transmitter output power Cable losses Antenna gain Path loss model(PL) A common PL model … Continue reading CCNP Wireless 642-747 IUWMS Summary Notes 4 : Location Tracking Techniques – Lateration (RSS)

CCNP Wireless 642-747 IUWMS Summary Notes 3 : Location Tracking Techniques – Lateration (ToA and TDoA)

Distance-Based (Lateration) Techniques The tracking position is determined based on distance. The distance can be measured in three different ways: Using Time of Arrival (ToA) Using Time Difference of Arrival (TDoA) Using Received Signal Strength In ToA and TDoA, localization is based on propagation time, whereas for RSS systems, propagation is based on signal strength. … Continue reading CCNP Wireless 642-747 IUWMS Summary Notes 3 : Location Tracking Techniques – Lateration (ToA and TDoA)

CCNP Wireless 642-747 IUWMS Summary Notes 2 : Location Tracking Techniques – Cell of Origin

Tracking systems are classified by the measurement technique that they use. Real Time Location Systems (RTLS) are grouped into the following: Cell of Origin ( Nearest Cell) Lateration ( depending on Distance) Angulation (depending on the angle) Location patterning ( pattern recognition) Cell of Origin The tracking position is based on proximity and is determined … Continue reading CCNP Wireless 642-747 IUWMS Summary Notes 2 : Location Tracking Techniques – Cell of Origin

CCNP Wireless 642-747 IUWMS Summary Notes 1 : Introduction to Location-Based Services

Advantages of Location-based services. Location-based services helps us to: Effectively locate assets and personnel. Improve productivity by locating effectively. Reduce unauthorized removal of assets and, thus, helps reduce losses. Improve customer satisfaction Improve WLAN planning and tuning Coordinate device location with Security policy enforcement Determine rogue device location Monitor health and status of key assets. … Continue reading CCNP Wireless 642-747 IUWMS Summary Notes 1 : Introduction to Location-Based Services

Passed CCNP CUWSS Wireless Exam, moving on to CCNP IUWMS Wireless.

Happy New Year and thank you for sticking with me thus far ! In this post, I will share my CUWSS experience. I finished studying for my CUWSS Exam in the beginning of December and booked my again for around December the 15th. My first attempt to give the exam was unsuccessful :(. To be honest, … Continue reading Passed CCNP CUWSS Wireless Exam, moving on to CCNP IUWMS Wireless.

CCNP Wireless CUWSS 642-732 Summary Notes 24 : Installation Report

Post Deployment A detailed hardware requirement list should have: Wireless equipment needed Supporting infrastructure upgrades RF Validation for the installed wireless network Co channel interference and appropriate channel separation Power levels are consistent with site survey If designing for AP failover or designing to RRM RF Coverage (band by band) Roaming audit Airmagnet can be … Continue reading CCNP Wireless CUWSS 642-732 Summary Notes 24 : Installation Report

CCNP Wireless CUWSS 642-732 Summary Notes 23 : Assessing WLAN Readiness

WLAN Readiness WCS can be used to assess Wireless coverage readiness for both Location Services and VoWLAN. This however does not replace an onsite post-deployment site survey. The tools used are: Inspect VoWLAN Readiness Inspect location Readiness Both tools are launched from the map that you are viewing on WCS. Voice over WLAN Readiness WCS … Continue reading CCNP Wireless CUWSS 642-732 Summary Notes 23 : Assessing WLAN Readiness