CCDA 640-864 Summary Notes – Chapter 4 – Day 7

Data Center Design

Exam Topic 1: Enterprise DC Architectures

Data Center 1.0

  • Centralized
  • Used mainframes to process and store data
  • Users used terminals to access and work on mainframes
  • benefits: availability, resiliency, and service level agreements (SLA)

Data Center 2.0

  • client/server and distributed computing into the mainstream data center
  • Bussiness applications installed on servers
  • users accessed data from servers using client softwares on PCs
  • Application services were distributed
  • Decentralized

Data Center 3.0

  • consolidation and virtualization
  • Increased Overall Return on Investment (ROI)
  • Lowers total cost of ownership (TCO)
  • Automation

Data Center 3.0 Components


  • Segmentation of LAN (Virtual LAN – VLAN), segmentation of Storage Area Netwror (Virtual SAN – VSAN), segmentation of network device instances (Virtual Device Contexts VDC)
  • Visibility and policy control for virtual machines (VM) using Cisco Nexus 1000V virtual switch

  • Multivendor support

Unified computing

  • Cisco Unified Computing System (UCS) converges computing, network, storage, and virtualization
  • x86 servers provide lossless 10GE unified network fabric
  • Uses Cisco Virtual Interface Card to virtualize interface cards on servers
  • Cisco VN-Link virtualization
  • Extended Memory Technology support

Unified Fabric

  • Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) and Internet Small Computer Systems Interface (iSCSI) over 10GE
  • FCoE supported on VMWare ESX/ESXi vsphere 4.0 +, Cisco Nexus 5000 and the Nexus 4000 and Converged Network Adapters (10GE)
  • iSCSI supported on Cisco Catalyst, Cisco Nexus, and Cisco MDS switches
  • Data center bridging supported on Cisco Nexus 5000 and the Nexus 4000
  • Cisco Nexus 5000 support unified fabric lossless operation for improved iSCSI performance

Benefits: incredible flexibility, visibility, and policy enforcement

Data Center 3.0 Topology Components


Exam Topic 2: Challenges in the DC


  • Power
  • need for energy efficiency
  • Rack Space
  • Scalability
  • Management
  • Security
  • Virtualization supports
  • Required management effort
Data Center Space
  • Number of racks
  • floor loading is affected by the rack weight
  • Heat from appliances
  • Power needed

Data Center Power

  • Power used to cool devices
  • Power redundancy
  • Power requirements for current equipment
  • Future power requirements
  • Power for UPS, generators, HVAC (air conditioning), lighting, and all the network, server, and storage equipment
  • Include PDUs, circuit breaker panels, electrical conduits, and wiring necessary to support the desired amount of physical redundancy
  • Power consumption areas: Cooling + Servers + Storage + Network + Conversion and lighting

Data Center Cooling

  • Humidity levels can affect static electricity. High static can damaneg equipment. Recommended 40 – 55 % Humidity
  • Proper airflow required. Alternate cold and hot aisles in data center. cold aisle – equipment face to face. Hot aisles – back to back. Cold aisles have perforated tiles that pass cold air through the equipment and to the back
  • Prevent hot air from mixing with cold.
  • Increase airflow by blocking air esxcapes
  • Increase height of raised floor
  • Spread equipment into unused racks
  • Open racks other than cabinets
  • Cabinets with mesh front and back
  • Perforated tiles with larger openings

1 watt = 3.41214British Thermal Units (BTU)

Data Center Heat

  • High density blade servers produce more heat
  • Increase air conditioning HVAC
  • Increase airflow through devices
  • Increase space btw racks and rows
  • Alternative cooling: Water cooled racks

Data Center Cabling (Passive Infrastructure)

Cabling characteristics:

  • Physical connectors
  • Media type
  • Cable length

Fiber Optics:

  • Longer distances
  • Less prone to interference
  • Single mode and Multimode


  • Prone to interfernece
  • Widely available
  • Less costly
  • Shorter distance (100 m)


  • Should be easy to maintain
  • Support various media types
  • abundant

Cable managemnet is affected by :

  • № of connections
  • media type
  • Cable organizer type
  • Space for cables


  • Inadequate cooling
  • Accidental disconnects
  • Unplanned dependencies
  • Difficult troubleshooting

Exam Topic 3: Enterprise DC Infrastructure


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