CCDA 640-864 Summary Notes – Day 1 and 2

Cisco Network Architectures for the Enterprise

a) Borderless networks architecture

  • Enables connectivity to anyone and anything, anywhere, and at any time.
  • Connectivity needs to be secure, reliable, and seamless.

The major blocks include:

  • Policy and Control are applied to all users and devices in the architecture
  • Borderless Network Services provide resiliency and control
  • Borderless User services
  • Borderless Connection management provides secure access, anytime, anywhere

b) Collaboration architecture

This architecture has 3 layers:

  • Communication and collaboration Apps – Conference applications
  • Collaboration services – Services that support the collaboration apps like presence and location
  • Infrastructure – facilitates collaboration anytime eg. virtual machines

c) Data center/virtualization architecture

Comprehensive set of virtualization technologies and services that bring the network, computing, storage, and virtualization platforms together.

Benefits of Cisco Architectures:

  • Support scalability
  • Provides for service reliability
  • Allows for continued functionality of the network
  • Improves performance of applications
  • Enables manageability of the network
  • The network tends to be more effective

Cisco’s PPDIOO Network life-cycle


  • Establishes business requirements
  • Develops a network strategy, and architecture to support the strategy.


  • Identifies network requirements
  • Assesses the network
  • Project plan is developed



  • Installation and configuration
  • Changes are tested


  • Fault detection, correction, and performance monitoring


  • Identify and resolve network issues
  • Modifications to the network

Benefits of PPDIOO

  • Network plans are validated before hand hence lowers total cost of ownership
  • A sound network design provides for Increased network availability
  • Business requirements and strategies are established before hand hence Improves network agility (response to change)
  • Performance, reliability and security are improved hence speeds access to applications and services

Design Methodology

Identify network requirements

  • Know the applications – planned application types, the applications, the importance of the applications and any comments
  • Know organizational goals – improve customer support, increase customer services, increase competitiveness or reduce costs
  • Any organizational constraints – Budget, timeframe, limited personel, policies might limit the use of certain protocols.
  • Define technical goals – improve network response time, simplify network management, improve security, improve application reliability, technology refresh, network scalability
  • Possible technical constraints – Existing infrastructure might limit support of new tech, Bandwidth limitation, Legacy equipment and applications might need to be supported.

Characterizing existing network

Gather Information from the existing network

  • Get all existing information and documentation. Identify the networks. major features
  • Audit the network. Identify the tools for auditing and monitoring traffic. Necessary audit information: Device list, models, software version, configs, auditing tools audit info, interface speeds, cpu utilization and WAN technology used
  • Analyze the traffic traversing the network. Identify Tools that can be used to analyze the existing network traffic

Network Audit tools:

  • Manual Assessment – show commands and scripts
  • NBAR (Classifies traffic), CiscoWorks (Topology, Hardware,Software,Config,Network Map), Netflow (Traffic flow on Interface), AirMagnet Survey PRO, BVS Yellowjacket Wifi Analyzer, Redcell Engineering, Netcordia NEtMRI, Netformix, NetQoS, and Pari Networks Assessment Tool
  • For VoIP, Wireless and security: AirMagnet Analyzer Pro, Ekahau Site Survey LANguard Network Security scanner, NetIQ Vivinet Assessor, neteXpose DNA, Cisco Operations Manager, Stats Manager, Service Statistics Manager, ClarusIPC, Prognosis

Show commands:

# show tech-support

# show processes cpu

# show version

# show processes memory

# show log

# show interface

# show policy-map interface

# show running-config

# show ip cache flow - output of Netflow

Network Analysis Tools:

  • Netformx DesignXpert Enterprise
  • CNS NetFlow Collector Engine (Hardware)
  • Cisco Embedded Resource Manager (ERM)
  • Sniffer
  • AirMagnet Wifi Analyzer
  • BVS Yellowjacket 802.11
  • NetIQ Vivinet Assessor
  • Netcordia NetMRI
  • SolarWinds Orion

A good network has the following characteristics:

  • Switches instead of hubs
  • < 70% WAN saturation
  • Response time < 100ms (<2ms LAN)
  • <20% Broadcasts and multicasts
  • < 1/1000000 bytes CRC errors
  • < 0.1 % collisions
  • not > or = 75% CPU utilization in 5 mins
  • < 100 output queue drops in an hour
  • < 50 output queue drops in an hour
  • < 25 buffer misses in an hour
  • < 10 ignored packets on an interface in an hour
  • QoS enabled

Designing the Network

The Top-Down approach is used. It ensures that network devices and technologies are not selected until the applications’ requirements are analyzed.

Top-Down approach:

  • Analyze applications and business requirements
  • Define requirements of the upper layers (5-7) and specify the infrastructure for the lower layers (1-4)
  • Gather data on network

Testing the Network

Prototype network – Full design tested in an isolated environment

Pilot Site – A live test site that can be used to test the solution under real-world circumstances before applying it in all locations

Design Document:

Should have the following:

  • Introduction – Purpose and goals of the network design
  • Design requirements and constraints
  • Existing Infrastructure
  • New design, topology, IP addressing

*Proof of concept – test results

  • Implementation Plan in details
  • Description of the step
  • Reference to design doc
  • Detailed implementation guidelines
  • Rollback steps
  • Estimated time
  • Appendixes – supporting information

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